Section 12 in The Carriage by Road Act, 2007

Title: Conditions limiting exonerating the liability of the common carrier

Description: (1) Every common carrier shall be liable to the consignor for the loss or damage to any consignment in accordance with the goods forwarding note, where such loss or damage has arisen on account of any criminal act of the common carrier, or any of his servants or agents. (2) In any suit brought against the common carrier for the loss, damage or non-delivery of consignment, it shall not be necessary for the plaintiff to prove that such loss, damage or non-delivery was owing to the negligence or criminal act of the common carrier, or any of his servants or agents. (3) Where any consignment has been detained for examination or scrutiny by a competent authority and upon such examination or scrutiny it is found that certain prohibited goods or goods on which due tax was not paid or insufficiently paid have been entrusted to the common carrier by the consignor which have not been described in the goods forwarding note, the cost of such examination or scrutiny shall be borne by the consignor and the common carrier shall not be liable for any loss, damage or deterioration caused by such detention of the consignment for examination or scrutiny: Provided that the onus of proving that such incorrect description of goods in the goods forwarding note was received from the consignor shall be on the common carrier. Explanation.--For the purposes of this section, "competent authority" means any person or authority who is empowered to examine or scrutinise goods by or under any law for the time being in force to secure compliance of provisions of that law.

Title: Provision for carriage of goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life

Description: (1) No goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life shall be carried by a common carrier except in accordance with such procedure and after complying with such safeguards as may be prescribed. (2) The Central Government may, by rules made in this behalf, specify the goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life and the label or class of labels to be carried in, or displayed on, the motor vehicle or such goods in the course of transportation. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, every common carrier shall scrutinise and ensure before starting transportation of any consignment containing goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life that the consignment is covered by, one or more insurance policies under a contract of insurance in respect of such goods providing relief in case of death or injury to a person or damage to any property or the consignment, if an accident takes place.

Title: Power of Central Government to prohibit carriage of certain class of goods

Description: The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, in public interest, the goods or class or classes of goods which shall not be carried by a common carrier.

Title: Right of common carrier in case of consignee’s default

Description: (1) If the consignee fails to take delivery of any consignment of goods within a period of thirty days from the date of notice given by the common carrier, such consignment may be deemed as unclaimed: Provided that in case of perishable consignment, the period of thirty days shall not apply and the consignment shall be deemed unclaimed after a period of twenty-four hours of service of notice or any lesser period as may be mutually agreed to by and between the common carrier and the consignor. (2) In the case of an unclaimed consignment under sub-section (1), the common carrier may,-- (a) if such consignment is perishable in nature, have the right to sell the consignment; or (b) if such consignment is not perishable in nature, cause a notice to be served upon the consignee or upon the consignor if the consignee is not available, requiring him to remove the goods within a period of fifteen days from the date of receipt of the notice and in case of failure to comply with the notice, the common carrier shall have the right to sell such consignment without any further notice to the consignee or the consignor, as the case may be. (3) The common carrier shall, out of the sale proceeds received under sub-section (2), retain a sum equal to the freight, storage and other charges due including expenses incurred for the sale, and the surplus, if any, from such sale proceeds shall be returned to the consignee or the consignor, as the case may be. (4) Unless otherwise agreed upon between the common carrier and consignor, the common carrier shall be entitled to detain or dispose off the consignment in part or full to recover his dues in the event of the consignee failing to make payment of the freight and other charges payable to the common carrier at the time of taking delivery.

Title: Notice for institution of a suit.

Description: No suit or other legal proceeding shall be instituted against a common carrier for any loss of, or damage to, the consignment, unless notice in writing of the loss or damage to the consignment has been served on the common carrier before the institution of the suit or other legal proceeding and within one hundred and eighty days from the date of booking of the consignment by the consignor.

The Carriage by Road Act, 2007