Section 1 in The Transfer of Property Act, 1882
Title: Short title.
This Act may be called the Transfer of Property Act, 1882.
Commencements.-- It shall come into force on the first day of July, 1882.
Extent.-- 1[It extends 2in the first instance to the whole of India. except 3[the territories which, immediately before the 1st November, 1956, were comprised in Part B States or in the States of], Bombay, Punjab and Delhi.]
4[But this Act or any part thereof may by 5notification in the Official Gazette be extended to the whole or any part of 6[the said territories] by the State Government concerned.
7[And any State Government may, 8*** from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt, either retrospectively or prospectively, any part of the territories administered by such State Government from all or any of the following provisions, namely:--
Sections 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123.
9[Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing part of this section, sections 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123 shall not extend or be extended to any district or tract of country for the time being excluded from the operation of the Indian Registration Act, 10[1908 (16 of 1908)], under the power conferred by the first section of that Act or otherwise.]
1. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for the third paragraph.
2. The application of this Act was barred in the Naga Hills District, including the Mokokchung Sub -division, the Dibrugarh Frontier Tract, the North Cachar Hills, the Garo Hills, the Khasi and Jantia Hills and the Mikir hills Tract, by notification under s. 2 of the Assant Frontier Tracts Regulation, 1880 (2 of 1880).
Partially extended to Berar by Act 4 of 1941. Extended to Manipur by Act 68 of 1956; to Dadra and Nagar Haveli by Reg. 6 of 1963, s. 2 and Sch. I; to Goa, Daman and Diu by Reg. 11 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch.; to Lakshadweep by Reg. 8 of 1965, s. 3 and Sch., to Pondicherry by Act 26 of 1968, s. 3 and Sch.
It has been amended to Bombay by Bombay Act 14 of 1939, S7 of 1959, in U.P. by U.P. Act 24 of 1954, 14 of 1970 and 57 of 1976.
Extended to the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union territory of Ladakh by Act 34 of 2019, s. 95 and the Fifth Schedule (w.e.f. 31-10-2019).
3. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for "Part B States".
4. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for the original paragraph.
5. The Act has been extended to
The Presidency of Bombay (except Scheduled Districts) w.e.f. 1-1-1893; to Mehwassi Estate by Born. Reg. 1 of 1949; and to former princely area w.e.f. 1-4-1951; now applicable to whole of Maharashtra;
Gujarat (Saurashtra area) by Saurashtra Ordinance 25 of 1949, and to Kutch area w.e.f. 1-1-1950.
Mysore, w.e.f. 1-4-1951;
Rajasthan, w.e.f. 1-7-1952;
the former State of Travancore-Cochin, w.e.f. 1-5-1952, now applicable to whole of Kerala.
The provisions o( sections 54, 107 and 123 were extended to—
Delhi, w.e.f. 30-5-1939. Section 129 was extended to certain areas of Delhi w.e.f. 16-11-1940 and to the remaining areas w.e.f. 1-12-1962. the remaining provisions were also extended to the Union territory of Delhi w.e.f. 1-12-1962;
Himachal Pradesh, w.e.f. 7-12-1970:
Punjab, w.e.f. 1-4-1955 and to former princely area w.e.f. 15-5-1957. (Section 59 was enforced in Haryana area, w.e.f. 5-8-1967).
The Act has been declared in force in the Pargana of Manpur by the Manpur Law Regulation, 1926 (2 of 1926), in Panth Piploda by the Panth Piploda Laws Regulation, 1929 (1 of 1929) and in the State of Sikkim on 1.9.1984 vide Notification No. S.O. 643(E), dated 24-8-1984, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Pt. II, sec. 3(0.
The Act has been repealed as to Government Grants by the Government Grants Act, 1895 (15 of 1895). The Act has been repealed or modified to the extent necessary to give effect to the provisions of Madras Act 3 of 1922, in the City of Madras see s. 13 of Madras Act 3 of 1922.
6. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for "the said States".
7. Subs. by Act 3 of 1885, s. 1, for the original paragraph.
8. The words "with the previous sanction of the Governor General in Council" omitted by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the Schedule.
9. Added by Act 3 of 1885, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-7-1882).
10. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 2, for 1877.
Title: Repeal of Acts.
In the territories to which this Act extends for the time being the enactments specified in the Schedule hereto annexed shall be repealed to the extent therein mentioned. But nothing herein contained shall he deemed to affect—
(a) the provisions of any enactment not hereby expressly repealed;
(b) any terms or incidents of any contract or constitution of property which are consistent with the provisions of this Act, and arc allowed by the law for the time being in force;
(c) any right or liability arising out of a legal relation constituted before this Act comes into force, or any relief in respect of any such right or liability; or
(d) save as provided by section 57 and Chapter IV of this Act, any transfer by operation of law or by, or in execution of, a decree or order of a Court of competent jurisdiction;
and nothing in the second Chapter of this Act shall be deemed to affect any rule of 1*** Muhammadan 2*** law.
1. The word "Hindu" omitted by s. 3, ibid.
2. The words "or Buddhist" omitted by s. 3, ibid.
In this Act, unless there is something repugnant in the subject or context,--
"immoveable property" does not include standing timber, growing crops or grass; "instrument", means a non-testamentary instrument;
1["attested", in relation to an instrument, means and shall be deemed always to have meant attested by two or more witnesses each of whom has seen the executant sign or affix his mark to the instrument, or has seen some other person sign the instrument in the presence and by the direction of the executant, or has received from the executant a personal acknowledgement of his signature or mark, or of the signature of such other person, and each of whom has signed the instrument in the presence of the executant; but it shall not be necessary that more than one of such witnesses shall have been present at the same time, and no particular form of attestation shall be necessary;]
"registered" means registered in 2[3[any part of the territories] to which this Act extends] under the laws4 for the time being in force regulating the registration of documents;
"attached to the earth" means—
(a) rooted in the earth, as in the case of trees and shrubs;
(b) imbedded in the earth, as in the case of walls or buildings; or
(c) attached to what is so imbedded for the permanent beneficial enjoyment of that to which it is attached;
5["actionable claim" means a claim to any debt, other than a debt secured by mortgage of immoveable property or by hypothecation or pledge of moveable property, or to any beneficial interest in moveable property not in the possession, either actual or constructive, of the claimant, which the Civil Courts recognise as affording grounds for relief, whether such debt or beneficial interest be existent, accuring, conditional or contingent;]
6["a person is said to have notice"] of a fact when he actually knows that fact, or when, but for wilful abstention from an enquiry or search which he ought to have made, or gross negligence, he would have known it.
Explanation 1.--Where any transaction relating to immovable property is required by law to be and has been effected by a registered instrument, any person acquiring such property or any part of, or share or interest in, such property shall be deemed to have notice of such instrument as from the date of registration or, 7[where the property is not all situated in one sub-district, or where the registered instrument has been registered under sub-section (2) of section 30 of the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), from the earliest date on which any memorandum of such registered instrument has been filed by any Sub-Registrar within whose sub-district any part of the property which is being acquired, or of the property wherein a share or interest is being acquired, is situated:]
(1) the instrument has been registered and its registration completed in the manner prescribed by the Indian. Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908) and the rules made thereunder,
(2) the instrument 8[or memorandum] has been duly entered or filed, as the case may be, in books kept under section 51 of that Act, and
(3) the particulars regarding the transaction to which the instrument relates have been correctly entered in the indexes kept under section 55 of that Act.
Explanation II.--Any person acquiring any immoveable property or any share or interest in any such property shall be deemed to have notice of the title, if any, of any person who is for the time being in actual possession thereof.
Explanation III.--A person shall be deemed to have had notice of any fact if his agent acquires notice thereof whilst acting on his behalf in the course of business to which that fact is material:
Provided that, if the agent fraudulently conceals the fact, the principal shall not be charged with notice thereof as against any person who was a party to or otherwise cognizant of the fraud.]
1. Ins. by Act 27 of 1926, s. 2, as amended by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. 1.
2. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and the Schedule, for a Part A State or a Part C State (w.e.f. 1 -4-1951).
3. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order 1956, for any State.
4. See the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908).
5. Ins. by Act 2 of 1900, s. 2.
6. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 4, for certain words.
7. Subs. by Act 5 of 1930, s. 2, for certain words.
8. Ins. by s. 2, ibid.
Title: Enactments relating to contracts to be taken as part of Contract Act and supplemental to the Registration Act.
The Chapters and sections of this Act which relate to contracts shall be taken as part of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872):
1[And sections 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123, shall be read as supplemental to the Indian Registration Act, 2[1908 (16 of 1908).]]
1. Added by Act 3 of 1885, s. 3.
2. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 5, for "1877".
Title: “Transfer of property” defined.
1In the following sections transfer of property means an act by .which a living person conveys property, in present or in future, to one or more other living persons, or to himself, 2[or it himself] and one or more other living persons; and "to transfer property" is to perform such act.
3[in this section "living person" includes a company or association or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, but nothing herein contained shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to transfer of property to or by companies, associations or bodies of individuals.]
1. Nothing in Chapter II is to be deemed to affect any rule of Muhammandan law--see s. 2, supra
2. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 6.
3. Added by s. 6, ibid.