Section 175 in The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

Title: Distribution of property.

Description: (1) The bankruptcy trustee may, with the approval of the committee of creditors, divide in its existing form amongst the creditors, according to its estimated value, any property in its existing form which from its peculiar nature or other special circumstances cannot be readily or advantageously sold. (2) An approval under sub-section (1) shall be sought by the bankruptcy trustee for each transaction, and a person dealing with the bankruptcy trustee in good faith and for value shall not be required to enquire whether any approval required under sub-section (1) has been given. (3) Where the bankruptcy trustee has done anything without the approval of the committee of creditors, the committee may, for the purpose of enabling him to meet his expenses out of the estate of the bankrupt, ratify the act of the bankruptcy trustee. (4) The committee of the creditors shall not ratify the act of the bankruptcy trustee under sub-section (3) unless it is satisfied that the bankruptcy trustee acted in a case of urgency and has sought its ratification without undue delay.

Title: Final dividend.

Description: (1) Where the bankruptcy trustee has realised the entire estate of the bankrupt or so much of it as could be realised in the opinion of the bankruptcy trustee, he shall give notice— (a) of his intention to declare a final dividend; or (b) that no dividend or further dividend shall be declared. (2) The notice under sub-section (1) shall contain such particulars as may be prescribed and shall require all claims against the estate of the bankrupt to be established by a final date specified in the notice. (3) The Adjudicating Authority may, on the application of any person interested in the administration of the estate of the bankrupt, postpone the final date referred to in sub-section (2). (4) After the final date referred to in sub-section (2), the bankruptcy trustee shall— (a) defray any outstanding expenses of the bankruptcy out of the estate of the bankrupt; and (b) if he intends to declare a final dividend, declare and distribute that dividend among the creditors who have proved their debts, without regard to the claims of any other persons. (5) If a surplus remains after payment in full with interest to all the creditors of the bankrupt and the payment of the expenses of the bankruptcy, the bankrupt shall be entitled to the surplus. (6) Where a bankruptcy order has been passed in respect of one partner in a firm, a creditor to whom the bankrupt is indebted jointly with the other partners in the firm or any of them shall not receive any dividend out of the separate property of the bankrupt until all the separate creditors have received the full amount of their respective debts.

Title: Claims of creditors.

Description: (1) A creditor who has not proved his debt before the declaration of any dividend is not entitled to disturb, by reason that he has not participated in it, the distribution of that dividend or any other dividend declared before his debt was proved, but— (a) when he has proved the debt, he shall be entitled to be paid any dividend or dividends which he has failed to receive, out of any money for the time being available for the payment of any further dividend; and (b) any dividend or dividends payable to him shall be paid before that money is applied to the payment of any such further dividend. (2) No action shall lie against the bankruptcy trustee for a dividend, but if the bankruptcy trustee refuses to pay a dividend payable under sub-section (1), the Adjudicating Authority may order him to— (a) pay the dividend; and Final dividend. (b) pay, out of his own money— (i) interest on the dividend; and (ii) the costs of the proceedings in which the order to pay has been made.

Title: Priority of payment of debts.

Description: (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any law enacted by the Parliament or the State Legislature for the time being in force, in the distribution of the final dividend, the following debts shall be paid in priority to all other debts— (a) firstly, the costs and expenses incurred by the bankruptcy trustee for the bankruptcy process in full; (b) secondly,— (i) the workmen's dues for the period of twenty-four months preceding the bankruptcy commencement date; and (ii) debts owed to secured creditors; (c) thirdly, wages and any unpaid dues owed to employees, other than workmen, of the bankrupt for the period of twelve months preceding the bankruptcy commencement date; (d) fourthly, any amount due to the Central Government and the State Government including the amount to be received on account of Consolidated Fund of India and the Consolidated Fund of a State, if any, in respect of the whole or any part of the period of two years preceding the bankruptcy commencement date; (e) lastly, all other debts and dues owed by the bankrupt including unsecured debts. (2) The debts in each class specified in sub-section (1) shall rank in the order mentioned in that sub-section but debts of the same class shall rank equally amongst themselves, and shall be paid in full, unless the estate of the bankrupt is insufficient to meet them, in which case they shall abate in equal proportions between themselves. (3) Where any creditor has given any indemnity or has made any payment of moneys by virtue of which any asset of the bankrupt has been recovered, protected or preserved, the Adjudicating Authority may make such order as it thinks just with respect to the distribution of such asset with a view to giving that creditor an advantage over other creditors in consideration of the risks taken by him in so doing. (4) Unsecured creditors shall rank equally amongst themselves unless contractually agreed to the contrary by such creditors. (5) Any surplus remaining after the payment of the debts under sub-section (1) shall be applied in paying interest on those debts in respect of the periods during which they have been outstanding since the bankruptcy commencement date. (6) Interest payments under sub-section (5) shall rank equally irrespective of the nature of the debt. (7) In the case of partners, the partnership property shall be applicable in the first instance in payment of the partnership debts and the separate property of each partner shall be applicable in the first instance in payment of his separate debts. (8) Where there is a surplus of the separate property of the partners, it shall be dealt with as part of the partnership property; and where there is a surplus of the partnership property, it shall be dealt with as part of the respective separate property in proportion to the rights and interests of each partner in the partnership property

Title: Adjudicating authority for individuals and partnership firms.

Description: (1) Subject to the provisions of section 60, the Adjudicating Authority, in relation to insolvency matters of individuals and firms shall be the Debt Recovery Tribunal having territorial jurisdiction over the place where the individual debtor actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain and can entertain an application under this Code regarding such person. (2) The Debt Recovery Tribunal shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, have jurisdiction to entertain or dispose of— (a) any suit or proceeding by or against the individual debtor; (b) any claim made by or against the individual debtor; (c) any question of priorities or any other question whether of law or facts, arising out of or in relation to insolvency and bankruptcy of the individual debtor or firm under this Code. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Limitation Act, 1963 (14 of 1963) or in any other law for the time being in force, in computing the period of limitation specified for any suit or application in the name and on behalf of a debtor for which an order of moratorium has been made under this Part, the period during which such moratorium is in place shall be excluded.

PART 3 INSOLVENCY RESOLUTION AND BANKRUPTCY FOR INDIVIDUALS AND PARTNERSHIP FIRMS CHAPTER 5 ADMINISTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE ESTATE OF BANKRUPT