Section 41 in The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
Title: Determination of valuation of claims.
The liquidator shall determine the value of claims admitted under section 40 in such manner as may be specified by the Board.
Title: Appeal against the decision of liquidator.
A creditor may appeal to the Adjudicating Authority against the decision of the liquidator 1[accepting or] rejecting the claims within fourteen days of the receipt of such decision.
1. Ins. by Act 26 of 2018, s. 27 (w.e.f. 6-6-2018).
Title: Preferential transactions and relevant time.
(1) Where the liquidator or the resolution professional, as the case may be, is of the opinion that the corporate debtor has at a relevant time given a preference in such transactions and in such manner as laid down in sub-section (2) to any persons as referred to in sub-section (4), he shall apply to the Adjudicating Authority for avoidance of preferential transactions and for, one or more of the orders referred to in section 44.
(2) A corporate debtor shall be deemed to have given a preference, if—
(a) there is a transfer of property or an interest thereof of the corporate debtor for the benefit of a creditor or a surety or a guarantor for or on account of an antecedent financial debt or operational debt or other liabilities owed by the corporate debtor; and
(b) the transfer under clause (a) has the effect of putting such creditor or a surety or a guarantor in a beneficial position than it would have been in the event of a distribution of assets being made in accordance with section 53.
(3) For the purposes of sub-section (2), a preference shall not include the following transfers—
(a) transfer made in the ordinary course of the business or financial affairs of the corporate debtor or the transferee;
(b) any transfer creating a security interest in property acquired by the corporate debtor to the extent that—
(i) such security interest secures new value and was given at the time of or after the signing of a security agreement that contains a description of such property as security interest and was used by corporate debtor to acquire such property; and
(ii) such transfer was registered with an information utility on or before thirty days after the corporate debtor receives possession of such property:
Provided that any transfer made in pursuance of the order of a court shall not, preclude such transfer to be deemed as giving of preference by the corporate debtor.
Explanation.—For the purpose of sub-section (3) of this section, "new value" means money or its worth in goods, services, or new credit, or release by the transferee of property previously transferred to such transferee in a transaction that is neither void nor voidable by the liquidator or the resolution professional under this Code, including proceeds of such property, but does not include a financial debt or operational debt substituted for existing financial debt or operational debt.
(4) A preference shall be deemed to be given at a relevant time, if—
(a) it is given to a related party (other than by reason only of being an employee), during the period of two years preceding the insolvency commencement date; or
(b) a preference is given to a person other than a related party during the period of one year preceding the insolvency commencement date.
Title: Orders in case of preferential transactions.
The Adjudicating Authority, may, on an application made by the resolution professional or liquidator under sub-section (1) of section 43, by an order:
(a) require any property transferred in connection with the giving of the preference to be vested in the corporate debtor;
(b) require any property to be so vested if it represents the application either of the proceeds of sale of property so transferred or of money so transferred;
(c) release or discharge (in whole or in part) of any security interest created by the corporate debtor;
(d) require any person to pay such sums in respect of benefits received by him Adjudicating Authority may direct;
(e) direct any guarantor, whose financial debts or operational debts owed to any person were released or discharged (in whole or in part) by the giving of the preference, to be under such new or revived financial debts or operational debts to that person as the Adjudicating Authority deems appropriate;
(f) direct for providing security or charge on any property for the discharge of any financial debt or operational debt under the order, and such security or charge to have the same priority as a security or charge released or discharged wholly or in part by the giving of the preference; and
(g) direct for providing the extent to which any person whose property is so vested in the corporate debtor, or on whom financial debts or operational debts are imposed by the order, are to be proved in the liquidation or the corporate insolvency resolution process for financial debts or operational debts which arose from, or were released or discharged wholly or in part by the giving of the preference:
Provided that an order under this section shall not—
(a) affect any interest in property which was acquired from a person other than the corporate debtor or any interest derived from such interest and was acquired in good faith and for value;
(b) require a person, who received a benefit from the preferential transaction in good faith and for value to pay a sum to the liquidator or the resolution professional.
Explanation I.— For the purpose of this section, it is clarified that where a person, who has acquired an interest in property from another person other than the corporate debtor, or who has received a benefit from the preference or such another person to whom the corporate debtor gave the preference,—
(i) had sufficient information of the initiation or commencement of insolvency resolution process of the corporate debtor;
(ii) is a related party,br
it shall be presumed that the interest was acquired or the benefit was received otherwise than in good faith unless the contrary is shown.
Explanation II.—A person shall be deemed to have sufficient information or opportunity to avail such information if a public announcement regarding the corporate insolvency resolution process has been made under section 13.
Title: Avoidance of undervalued transactions.
(1) If the liquidator or the resolution professional, as the case may be, on an examination of the transactions of the corporate debtor referred to in sub-section (2) 1*** determines that certain transactions were made during the relevant period under section 46, which were undervalued, he shall make an application to the Adjudicating Authority to declare such transactions as void and reverse the effect of such transaction in accordance with this Chapter.
(2) A transaction shall be considered undervalued where the corporate debtor—
(a) makes a gift to a person; or
(b) enters into a transaction with a person which involves the transfer of one or more assets by the corporate debtor for a consideration the value of which is significantly less than the value of the consideration provided by the corporate debtor,
and such transaction has not taken place in the ordinary course of business of the corporate debtor.
1. The words and figures “of section 43” omitted by Act 26 of 2018, s. 28 (w.e.f. 6-6-2018).