Section 36 in The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

Title: Liquidation estate.

Description: (1) For the purposes of liquidation, the liquidator shall form an estate of the assets mentioned in sub-section (3), which will be called the liquidation estate in relation to the corporate debtor. (2) The liquidator shall hold the liquidation estate as a fiduciary for the benefit of all the creditors. (3) Subject to sub-section (4), the liquidation estate shall comprise all liquidation estate assets which shall include the following:— (a) any assets over which the corporate debtor has ownership rights, including all rights and interests therein as evidenced in the balance sheet of the corporate debtor or an information utility or records in the registry or any depository recording securities of the corporate debtor or by any other means as may be specified by the Board, including shares held in any subsidiary of the corporate debtor; (b) assets that may or may not be in possession of the corporate debtor including but not limited to encumbered assets; (c) tangible assets, whether movable or immovable; (d) intangible assets including but not limited to intellectual property, securities (including shares held in a subsidiary of the corporate debtor) and financial instruments, insurance policies, contractual rights; (e) assets subject to the determination of ownership by the court or authority; (f) any assets or their value recovered through proceedings for avoidance of transactions in accordance with this Chapter; (g) any asset of the corporate debtor in respect of which a secured creditor has relinquished security interest; (h) any other property belonging to or vested in the corporate debtor at the insolvency commencement date; and (i) all proceeds of liquidation as and when they are realised. (4) The following shall not be included in the liquidation estate assets and shall not be used for recovery in the liquidation:— (a) assets owned by a third party which are in possession of the corporate debtor, including— (i) assets held in trust for any third party; (ii) bailment contracts; (iii) all sums due to any workman or employee from the provident fund, the pension fund and the gratuity fund; (iv) other contractual arrangements which do not stipulate transfer of title but only use of the assets; and (v) such other assets as may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with any financial sector regulator; (b) assets in security collateral held by financial services providers and are subject to netting and set-off in multi-lateral trading or clearing transactions; (c) personal assets of any shareholder or partner of a corporate debtor as the case may be provided such assets are not held on account of avoidance transactions that may be avoided under this Chapter; (d) assets of any Indian or foreign subsidiary of the corporate debtor; or (e) any other assets as may be specified by the Board, including assets which could be subject to set-off on account of mutual dealings between the corporate debtor and any creditor.

Title: Powers of liquidator to access information

Description: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the liquidator shall have the power to access any information systems for the purpose of admission and proof of claims and identification of the liquidation estate assets relating to the corporate debtor from the following sources, namely:— (a) an information utility; (b) credit information systems regulated under any law for the time being in force; (c) any agency of the Central, State or Local Government including any registration authorities; (d) information systems for financial and non-financial liabilities regulated under any law for the time being in force; (e) information systems for securities and assets posted as security interest regulated under any law for the time being in force; (f) any database maintained by the Board; and (g) any other source as may be specified by the Board. (2) The creditors may require the liquidator to provide them any financial information relating to the corporate debtor in such manner as may be specified. (3) The liquidator shall provide information referred to in sub-section (2) to such creditors who have requested for such information within a period of seven days from the date of such request or provide reasons for not providing such information.

Title: Consolidation of claims.

Description: (1) The liquidator shall receive or collect the claims of creditors within a period of thirty days from the date of the commencement of the liquidation process. (2) A financial creditor may submit a claim to the liquidator by providing a record of such claim with an information utility: Provided that where the information relating to the claim is not recorded in the information utility, the financial creditor may submit the claim in the same manner as provided for the submission of claims for the operational creditor under sub-section (3). (3) An operational creditor may submit a claim to the liquidator in such form and in such manner and along with such supporting documents required to prove the claim as may be specified by the Board. (4) A creditor who is partly a financial creditor and partly an operational creditor shall submit claims to the liquidator to the extent of his financial debt in the manner as provided in sub-section (2) and to the extent of his operational debt under sub-section (3). (5) A creditor may withdraw or vary his claim under this section within fourteen days of its submission.

Title: Verification of claims.

Description: (1) The liquidator shall verify the claims submitted under section 38 within such time as specified by the Board. (2) The liquidator may require any creditor or the corporate debtor or any other person to produce any other document or evidence which he thinks necessary for the purpose of verifying the whole or any part of the claim.

Title: Admission or rejection of claims.

Description: (1) The liquidator may, after verification of claims under section 39, either admit or reject the claim, in whole or in part, as the case may be: Provided that where the liquidator rejects a claim, he shall record in writing the reasons for such rejection. (2) The liquidator shall communicate his decision of admission or rejection of claims to the creditor and corporate debtor within seven days of such admission or rejection of claims.

PART 2 INSOLVENCY RESOLUTION AND LIQUIDATION FOR CORPORATE REASONS CHAPTER 3 LIQUIDATION PROCESS