Section 168 in The Indian Contract Act, 1872
Title: Right of finder of goods
The finder of goods has no right to sue the owner for compensation for trouble and expense voluntarily incurred by him to preserve the goods and to find out the owner; but he may retain the goods against the owner until he receives such compensation; and, where the owner has offered a specific reward for the return of goods lost, the finder may sue for such reward, and may retain the goods until he receives it.
Title: When finder of thing commonly on sale may sell it.
When a thing which is commonly the subject of sale is lost, if the owner cannot with reasonable diligence be found, or if he refuses, upon demand, to pay the lawful charges of the finder, the finder may sell it—
(1) when the thing is in danger of perishing or of losing the greater part of its value, or,
(2) when the lawful charges of the finder, in respect of the thing found, amount to two-thirds of its value
Title: Bailee's particular lien
Where the bailee has, in accordance with the purpose of the bailment, rendered any service involving the exercise of labour or skill in respect of the goods bailed, he has, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, a right to retain such goods until he receives due remuneration for the services he has rendered in respect of them.
(a) A delivers a rough diamond to B, a jeweller, to be cut and polished, which is accordingly done. B is entitled to retain the stone till he is paid for the services he has rendered.
(b) A gives, cloth to B, a tailor, to make into a coat. B promises A to deliver the coat as soon as it is finished, and to give a three months' credit for the price. B is not entitled to retain the coat until he is paid.
Title: General lien of bankers, factors, wharfingers, attorneys and policy-brokers
Bankers, factors, wharfingers, attorneys of a High Court and policy-brokers may, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, retain as a security for a general balance of account, any goods bailed to them; but no other persons have a right to retain, as a security for such balance, goods bailed to them, unless there is an express contract to that effect1.
1. As to lien of an agent, see s. 221, infra. As to lien of a Railway Administration, see the Indian Railways Act, 1890 (9 of 1890), s. 55.
Title: "Pledge", "Pawnor" and "Pawnee" defined
The bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise is called "pledge". The bailor is in this case called the "pawnor". The bailee is called the "pawnee".