Section 53 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: Punishments

Description: The punishments to which offenders are liable under the provisions of this Code are— (First) — Death; 1[Secondly.—Imprisonment for life;] 2[***] (Fourthly) —Imprisonment, which is of two descriptions, namely:— (1) Rigorous, that is, with hard labour; (2) Simple; (Fifthly) —Forfeiture of property; (Sixthly) —Fine. 1[53A. Construction of reference to transportation.— (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) and sub-section (3), any reference to “transportation for life” in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument or order having effect by virtue of any such law or of any enactment repealed shall be construed as a reference to “imprisonment for life”. (2) In every case in which a sentence of transportation for a term has been passed before the commencement of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2[1955] (26 of 1955), the offender shall be dealt with in the same manner as if sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for the same term. (3) Any reference to transportation for a term or to transporta­tion for any shorter term (by whatever name called) in any other law for the time being in force shall be deemed to have been omitted. (4) Any reference to “transportation” in any other law for the time being in force shall,— (a) if the expression means transportation for life, be construed as a reference to imprisonment for life; (b) if the expression means transportation for any shorter term, be deemed to have been omitted.]

Title: Commutation of sentence of death

Description: In every case in which sentence of death shall have been passed, 1[the appropriate Government] may, without the consent of the offender, commute the punishment for any other punishment provided by this Code

Title: Commutation of sentence of imprisonment of life

Description: In every case in which sentence of 1[imprisonment] for life shall have been passed, 2[the appropriate Government] may, without the consent of the offender, commute the punishment for imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding fourteen years 1[55A. Definition of “appropriate Government”.—In sections 54 and 55 the expression “appropriate Government” means,— (a) in cases where the sentence is a sentence of death or is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the execu­tive power of the Union extends, the Central Government; and (b) in cases where the sentence (whether of death or not) is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends, the Government of the State within which the offender is sentenced.]

Title: Section 56 in Indian Panel Codes

Description: Sentence of Europeans and Americans to penal servitude. Proviso as to sentence for term exceeding ten years but not for life.—[Rep. by the Criminal Law (Removal of Racial Discrimina­tions) Act, 1949 (17 of 1949) (w.e.f. 6-4-1949).]

Title: Fractions of terms of punishment

Description: In calculating fractions of terms of punishment, 56 [imprisonment] for life shall be reck­oned as equivalent to 56 [imprisonment] for twenty years

CHAPTER 3 OF PUNISHMENTS