Section 38 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: Persons concerned in criminal act may be guilty of different offences

Description: Where several persons are engaged or concerned in the commission of a criminal act, they may be guilty of different offences by means of that act. Illustration A attacks Z under such circumstances of grave provocation that his killing of Z would be only culpable homicide not amounting to murder. B, having ill-will towards Z and intending to kill him, and not having been subject to the provocation, assists A in killing Z. Here, though A and B are both engaged in causing Z’s death, B is guilty of murder, and A is guilty only of culpable homicide

Title: "Voluntarily"

Description: A person is said to cause an effect “volun­tarily” when he causes it by means whereby he intended to cause it, or by means which, at the time of employing those means, he knew or had reason to believe to be likely to cause it. Illustration A sets fire, by night, to an inhabited house in a large town, for the purpose of facilitating a robbery and thus causes the death of a person. Here, A may not have intended to cause death; and may even be sorry that death has been caused by his act; yet, if he knew that he was likely to cause death, he has caused death voluntarily

Title: "Offence"

Description: Except in the 39 [Chapters] and sections mentioned in clauses 2 and 3 of this section, the word “offence” denotes a thing made punishable by this Code. In Chapter IV, 40 [Chapter VA] and in the following sections, namely, sections 41 [64, 65, 66, 42 [67], 71], 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 43 [118, 119, 120,] 187, 194, 195, 203, 211, 213, 214, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 347, 348, 388, 389 and 445, the word “offence” denotes a thing punishable under this Code, or under any special or local law as hereinafter defined. And in sections 141, 176, 177, 201, 202, 212, 216 and 441, the word “offence” has the same meaning when the thing punishable under the special or local law is punishable under such law with imprisonment for a term of six months or upwards, whether with or without fine.

Title: "Special Law"

Description: A “special law” is a law applicable to a particular subject

Title: "Local Law"

Description: A “local law” is a law applicable only to a particular part of 44 [ 45 [***] 46 [India]].