Section 33 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: "Act" "Omission"

Description: The word “act” denotes as well a series of acts as a single act: the word “omission” denotes as well a series of omissions as a single omission

Title: Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention

Description: hen a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.]

Title: When such an act is criminal by reasons of its being done with a criminal konwledge or intention

Description: Whenever an act, which is criminal only by reason of its being done with a criminal knowl­edge or intention, is done by several persons, each of such persons who joins in the act with such knowledge or intention is liable for the act in the same manner as if the act were done by him alone with that knowledge or intention

Title: effect caused partly by act and partly by omission

Description: Wherever the causing of a certain effect, or an attempt to cause that effect, by an act or by an omission, is an offence, it is to be understood that the causing of that effect partly by an act and partly by an omission is the same offence. Illustration A intentionally causes Z’s death, partly by illegally omitting to give Z food, and partly by beating Z. A has committed murder

Title: cooperation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence

Description: When an offence is committed by means of several acts, whoever intentionally co-operates in the commission of that offence by doing any one of those acts, either singly or jointly with any other person, commits that offence. Illustrations (a) A and B agree to murder Z by severally and at different times giving him small doses of poison. A and B administer the poison according to the agreement with intent to murder Z. Z dies from the effects of the several doses of poison so administered to him. Here A and B intentionally co-operate in the commission of murder and as each of them does an act by which the death is caused, they are both guilty of the offence though their acts are separate. (b) A and B are joint jailors, and as such have the charge of Z, a prisoner, alternatively for six hours at a time. A and B, intend­ing to cause Z’s death, knowingly co-operate in causing that effect by illegally omitting, each during the time of his attend­ance, to furnish Z with food supplied to them for that purpose, Z dies of hunger. Both A and B are guilty of the murder of Z. (c) A, a jailor, has the charge of Z, a prisoner. A, intending to cause Z’s death, illegally omits to supply Z with food; in conse­quence of which Z is much reduced in strength, but the starvation is not sufficient to cause his death. A is dismissed from his office, and B succeeds him. B, without collusion or co-operation with A, illegally omits to supply Z with food, knowing that he is likely thereby to cause Z’s death. Z dies of hunger. B is guilty of murder, but, as A did not co-operate with B. A is guilty only of an attempt to commit murder

CHAPTER 2 GENERAL EXPLANATIONS