Section 10 in The Mental Healthcare Act, 2017
Title: Duty to follow advance directive
It shall be the duty of every medical officer in charge of a mental health establishment and the psychiatrist in charge of a person's treatment to propose or give treatment to a person with mental illness, in accordance with his valid advance directive, subject to section 11.
Title: Power to review, alter, modify or cancel advance directive
(1) Where a mental health professional or a relative or a care-giver of a person desires not to follow an advance directive while treating a person with mental illness, such mental health professional or the relative or the care-giver of the person shall make an application to the concerned Board to review, alter, modify or cancel the advance directive.
(2) Upon receipt of the application under sub-section (1), the Board shall, after giving an opportunity of hearing to all concerned parties (including the person whose advance directive is in question), either uphold, modify, alter or cancel the advance directive after taking into consideration the following, namely:—
(a) whether the advance directive was made by the person out of his own free will and free from force, undue influence or coercion; or
(b) whether the person intended the advance directive to apply to the present circumstances, which may be different from those anticipated; or
(c) whether the person was sufficiently well informed to make the decision; or
(d) whether the person had capacity to make decisions relating to his mental healthcare or treatment when such advanced directive was made; or
(e) whether the content of the advance directive is contrary to other laws or constitutional provisions.
(3) The person writing the advance directive and his nominated representative shall have a duty to ensure that the medical officer in charge of a mental health establishment or a medical practitioner or a mental health professional, as the case may be, has access to the advance directive when required.
(4) The legal guardian shall have right to make an advance directive in writing in respect of a minor and all the provisions relating to advance directive, mutatis mutandis, shall apply to such minor till such time he attains majority.
Title: Review of advance directives
(1) The Central Authority shall regularly and periodically review the use of advance directives and make recommendations in respect thereof.
(2) The Central Authority in its review under sub-section (1) shall give specific consideration to the procedure for making an advance directive and also examine whether the existing procedure protects the rights of persons with mental illness.
(3) The Central Authority may modify the procedure for making an advance directive or make additional regulations regarding the procedure for advance directive to protect the rights of persons with mental illness.
Title: Liability of medical health professional in relation to advance directive
(1) A medical practitioner or a mental health professional shall not be held liable for any unforeseen consequences on following a valid advance directive.
(2) The medical practitioner or mental health professional shall not be held liable for not following a valid advance directive, if he has not been given a copy of the valid advance directive.
Title: Appointment and revocation of nominated representative
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 5, every person who is not a minor, shall have a right to appoint a nominated representative.
(2) The nomination under sub-section (1) shall be made in writing on plain paper with the person's signature or thumb impression of the person referred to in that sub-section.
(3) The person appointed as the nominated representative shall not be a minor, be competent to discharge the duties or perform the functions assigned to him under this Act, and give his consent in writing to the mental health professional to discharge his duties and perform the functions assigned to him under this Act.
(4) Where no nominated representative is appointed by a person under sub-section (1), the following persons for the purposes of this Act in the order of precedence shall be deemed to be the nominated representative of a person with mental illness, namely:—
(a) the individual appointed as the nominated representative in the advance directive under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 5; or
(b) a relative, or if not available or not willing to be the nominated representative of such person; or
(c) a care-giver, or if not available or not willing to be the nominated representative of such person; or
(d) a suitable person appointed as such by the concerned Board; or
(e) if no such person is available to be appointed as a nominated representative, the Board shall appoint the Director, Department of Social Welfare, or his designated representative, as the nominated representative of the person with mental illness:
Provided that a person representing an organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860) or any other law for the time being in force, working for persons with mental illness, may temporarily be engaged by the mental health professional to discharge the duties of a nominated representative pending appointment of a nominated representative by the concerned Board.
(5) The representative of the organisation, referred to in the proviso to sub-section (4), may make a written application to the medical officer in-charge of the mental health establishment or the psychiatrist in-charge of the person's treatment, and such medical officer or psychiatrist, as the case may be, shall accept him as the temporary nominated representative, pending appointment of a nominated representative by the concerned Board.
(6) A person who has appointed any person as his nominated representative under this section may revoke or alter such appointment at any time in accordance with the procedure laid down for making an appointment of nominated representative under sub-section (1).
(7) The Board may, if it is of the opinion that it is in the interest of the person with mental illness to do so, revoke an appointment made by it under this section, and appoint a different representative under this section.
(8) The appointment of a nominated representative, or the inability of a person with mental illness to appoint a nominated representative, shall not be construed as the lack of capacity of the person to take decisions about his mental healthcare or treatment.
(9) All persons with mental illness shall have capacity to make mental healthcare or treatment decisions but may require varying levels of support from their nominated representative to make decisions.