Section 31 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: "A will"

Description: The words “a will” denote any testamentary document

Title: Words referring to acts include illegal omissions

Description: In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to ille­gal omissions.

Title: "Act" "Omission"

Description: The word “act” denotes as well a series of acts as a single act: the word “omission” denotes as well a series of omissions as a single omission

Title: Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention

Description: hen a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.]

Title: When such an act is criminal by reasons of its being done with a criminal konwledge or intention

Description: Whenever an act, which is criminal only by reason of its being done with a criminal knowl­edge or intention, is done by several persons, each of such persons who joins in the act with such knowledge or intention is liable for the act in the same manner as if the act were done by him alone with that knowledge or intention

CHAPTER 2 GENERAL EXPLANATIONS