Section 2 in The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act, 2017
Description: In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “AIDS” means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a condition characterised by a combination of signs and symptoms, caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which attacks and weakens the body’s immune system making the HIV-positive person susceptible to life threatening conditions or other conditions, as may be specified from time to time; (b) “capacity to consent” means ability of an individual, determined on an objective basis, to understand and appreciate the nature and consequences of a proposed action and to make an informed decision concerning such action; (c) “child affected by HIV” means a person below the age of eighteen years, who is HIV-positive or whose parent or guardian (with whom such child normally resides) is HIV-positive or has lost a parent or guardian (with whom such child resided) due to AIDS or lives in a household fostering children orphaned by AIDS; (d) “discrimination” means any act or omission which directly or indirectly, expressly or by effect, immediately or over a period of time,— (i) imposes any burden, obligation, liability, disability or disadvantage on any person or category of persons, based on one or more HIV-related grounds; or (ii) denies or withholds any benefit, opportunity or advantage from any person or category of persons, based on one or more HIV-related grounds, and the expression “discriminate” to be construed accordingly. Explanation 1.—For the purposes of this clause, HIV-related grounds include— (i) being an HIV-positive person; (ii) ordinarily living, residing or cohabiting with a person who is HIV-positive person; (iii) ordinarily lived, resided or cohabited with a person who was HIV-positive. Explanation 2.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that adoption of medically advised safeguards and precautions to minimise the risk of infection shall not amount to discrimination; (e) “domestic relationship” means a relationship as defined under clause (f) of section 2 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (43 of 2005); (f) “establishment” means a body corporate or co-operative society or any organisation or institution or two or more persons jointly carrying out a systematic activity for a period of twelve months or more at one or more places for consideration or otherwise, for the production, supply or distribution of goods or services; (g) “guidelines” means any statement or any other document issued by the Central Government indicating policy or procedure or course of action relating to HIV and AIDS to be followed by the Central Government, State Governments, governmental and non-governmental organisations and establishments and individuals dealing with prevention, control and treatment of HIV or AIDS; (h) “healthcare provider” means any individual whose vocation or profession is directly or indirectly related to the maintenance of the health of another individual and includes any physician, nurse, paramedic, psychologist, counsellor or other individual providing medical, nursing, psychological or other healthcare services including HIV prevention and treatment services; (i) “HIV” means Human Immunodeficiency Virus; (j) “HIV-affected person” means an individual who is HIV-positive or whose partner (with whom such individual normally resides) is HIV-positive or has lost a partner (with whom such individual resided) due to AIDS; (k) “HIV-positive person” means a person whose HIV test has been confirmed positive; (l) “HIV-related information” means any information relating to the HIV status of a person and includes— (i) information relating to the undertaking performing the HIV test or result of an HIV test; (ii) information relating to the care, support or treatment of that person; (iii) information which may identify that person; and (iv) any other information concerning that person, which is collected, received, accessed or recorded in connection with an HIV test, HIV treatment or HIV-related research or the HIV status of that person; (m) “HIV test” means a test to determine the presence of an antibody or antigen of HIV; (n) “informed consent” means consent given by any individual or his representative specific to a proposed intervention without any coercion, undue influence, fraud, mistake or misrepresentation and such consent obtained after informing such individual or his representative, as the case may be, such information, as specified in the guidelines, relating to risks and benefits of, and alternatives to, the proposed intervention in such language and in such manner as understood by that individual or his representative, as the case may be; (o) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (p) “partner” means a spouse, de facto spouse or a person with whom another person has relationship in the nature of marriage; (q) “person” includes an individual, a Hindu Undivided Family, a company, a firm, an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, in India or outside India, any corporation established by or under any Central or State Act or any company including a Government company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), any Limited Liability Partnership under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 (6 of 2009), any body corporate incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India, a co-operative society registered under any law relating to co-operative societies, a local authority, and every other artificial juridical person; (r) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be; (s) “protected person” means a person who is— (i) HIV-Positive; or (ii) ordinarily living, residing or cohabiting with a person who is HIV-positive person; or (iii) ordinarily lived, resided or cohabited with a person who was HIV-positive; (t) “reasonable accommodation” means minor adjustments to a job or work that enables an HIV-positive person who is otherwise qualified to enjoy equal benefits or to perform the essential functions of the job or work, as the case may be; (u) “relative”, with reference to the protected person, means— (i) spouse of the protected person; (ii) parents of the protected person; (iii) brother or sister of the protected person; (iv) brother or sister of the spouse of the protected person; (v) brother or sister of either of the parents of the protected person; (vi) in the absence of any of the relatives mentioned at sub-clauses (i) to (v), any lineal ascendant or descendant of the protected person; (vii) in the absence of any of the relatives mentioned at sub-clauses (i) to (vi), any lineal ascendant or descendant of the spouse of the protected person; (v) “significant-risk” means— (a) the presence of significant-risk body substances; (b) a circumstance which constitutes significant-risk for transmitting or contracting HIV infection; or (c) the presence of an infectious source and an uninfected person. Explanation.—For the purpose of this clause,— (i) “significant-risk body substances” are blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk, tissue and the body fluids, namely, cerebrospinal, amniotic, peritoneal, synovial, pericardial and pleural; (ii) ‘‘circumstances which constitute significant-risk for transmitting or contracting HIV infection” are— (A) sexual intercourse including vaginal, anal or oral sexual intercourse which exposes an uninfected person to blood, blood products, semen or vaginal secretions of an HIV-positive person; (B) sharing of needles and other paraphernalia used for preparing and injecting drugs between HIV-positive persons and uninfected persons; (C) the gestation, giving birth or breast feeding of an infant when the mother is an HIV-positive person; (D) transfusion of blood, blood products, and transplantation of organs or other tissues from an HIV-positive person to an uninfected person, provided such blood, blood products, organs or other tissues have not been tested conclusively for the antibody or antigen of HIV and have not been rendered non-infective by heat or chemical treatment; and (E) other circumstances during which a significant-risk body substance, other than breast milk, of an HIV-positive person contacts or may contact mucous membranes including eyes, nose or mouth, nonintact-skin including open wounds, skin with a dermatitis condition or abraded areas or the vascular system of an uninfected person, and including such circumstances not limited to needle-stick or puncture wound injuries and direct saturation or permeation of these body surfaces by the significant-risk body substances: Provided that “significant-risk” shall not include— (i) exposure to urine, faeces, sputum, nasal secretions, saliva, sweat, tears or vomit that does not contain blood that is visible to the naked eye; (ii) human bites where there is no direct blood to blood, or no blood to mucous membrane contact; (iii) exposure of intact skin to blood or any other blood substance; and (iv) occupational centres where individuals use scientifically accepted Universal Precautions, prohibitive techniques and preventive practices in circumstances which would otherwise pose a significant-risk and such techniques are not breached and remain intact; (w) “State AIDS Control Society” means the nodal agency of the State Government responsible for implementing programmes in the field of HIV and AIDS; (x) “State Government”, in relation to a Union territory, means the Administrator of that Union territory appointed by the President under article 239 of the Constitution; and (y) “Universal Precautions” means control measures that prevent exposure to or reduce, the risk of transmission of pathogenic agents (including HIV) and includes education, training, personal protective equipment such as gloves, gowns and masks, hand washing, and employing safe work practices.