Section 28 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: "Counterfeit"

Description: A person is said to “counterfeit” who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practise deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practised. 35 [Explanation 1.—It is not essential to counterfeiting that the imitation should be exact. Explanation 2.—When a person causes one thing to resemble anoth­er thing, and the resemblance is such that a person might be deceived thereby, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that the person so causing the one thing to resemble the other thing intended by means of that resemblance to practise deception or knew it to be likely that deception would thereby be practised.]

Title: "Document"

Description: The word “document” denotes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures, or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, as evidence of that matter. Explanation 1.—It is immaterial by what means or upon what substance the letters, figures or marks are formed, or whether the evidence is intended for, or may be used in, a Court of Justice, or not. Illustrations A writing expressing the terms of a contract, which may be used as evidence of the contract, is a document. A cheque upon a banker is a document. A power-of-attorney is a document. A map or plan which is intended to be used or which may be used as evidence, is a document. A writing containing directions or instructions is a document. Explanation 2.—Whatever is expressed by means of letters, fig­ures or marks as explained by mercantile or other usage, shall be deemed to be expressed by such letters, figures or marks within the meaning of this section, although the same may not be actual­ly expressed. Illustration A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange payable to his order. The meaning of the endorsement, as explained by mer­cantile usage, is that the bill is to be paid to the holder. The endorsement is a document, and must be construed in the same manner as if the words “pay to the holder” or words to that effect had been written over the signature. 36 [29A. “Electronic record”.—The words “electronic record” shall have the meaning assigned to them in clause (t) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.]

Title: "Valuable security"

Description: The words “valuable security” denote a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extin­guished or released, or where by any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right. Illustration A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange. As the effect of this endorsement is transfer the right to the bill to any person who may become the lawful holder of it, the endorse­ment is a “valuable security”.

Title: "A will"

Description: The words “a will” denote any testamentary document

Title: Words referring to acts include illegal omissions

Description: In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to ille­gal omissions.

CHAPTER 2 GENERAL EXPLANATIONS