Section 157 in Indian Evidence Act 1872

Title: Former statements of witness may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to same fact

Description: In order to corroborate the testimony of a witness, any former statement made by such witness relating to the same fact at or about the time when the fact took place, or before any authority legally competent to investigate the fact, may be proved.

Title: What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under section 32 or 33

Description: Whenever any statement, relevant under section 32 or 33, is proved, all matters may be proved either in order to contradict or to corroborate it, or in order to impeach or confirm the credit of the person by whom it was made, which might have been proved if that person had been called as a witness and had denied upon cross-examination the truth of the matter suggested.

Title: Refreshing memory

Description: A witness may, while under examination, refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by himself at the time of the transaction concerning which he is questioned, or so soon afterwards that the Court considers it likely that the transaction was at that time fresh in his memory. The witness may also refer to any such writing made by any other person, and read by the witness within the time aforesaid, if when he read it he knew it to be correct. When witness may use copy of document to refresh memory. -- Whenever a witness may refresh his memory by reference to any document, he may, with the permission of the Court, refer to a copy of such document: Provided the Court be satisfied that there is sufficient reason for the non-production of the original. An expert may refresh his memory by reference to professional treatises.

Title: Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section159

Description: A witness may also testify to facts mentioned in any such document as is mentioned in section 159, although he has no specific recollection of the facts themselves, if he is sure that the facts were correctly recorded in the document. Illustration A book-keeper may testify to facts recorded by him in books regularly kept in the course of business, if he knows that the books were correctly kept, although he has forgotten the particular transactions entered.

Title: Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory

Description: 1161. Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory.-- Any writing referred to under the provisions of the two last preceding sections must be produced and shown to the adverse party if he requires it; such party may, if he pleases, cross-examine the witness thereupon. 1. As to the application of s. 161 to police diaries, see the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Act 2 of 1974), s. 172.

PART 3 PRODUCTION AND EFFECT OF EVIDENCE CHAPTER 10 OF THE EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES