Section 83 in Indian Evidence Act 1872

Title: Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government

Description: The Court shall presume that maps or plans purporting to be made by the authority of 1[the Central Government or any State Government] were so made, and are accurate; but maps or plans made for the purposes of any cause must be proved to be accurate. 1. The original word "Government" has successively been amended by the A.O. 1937, the A.O. 1948, Act 40 of 1949 and the A.O. 1950 to read as above.

Title: Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions

Description: The Court shall presume the genuineness of every book purporting to be printed or published under the authority of the Government of any country, and to contain any of the laws of that country, and of every book purporting to contain reports of decisions of the Courts of such country.

Title: Presumptions as to powers of attorney

Description: The Court shall presume that every document purporting to be a power-of-attorney, and to have been executed before, and authenticated by, a Notary Public, or any Court, Judge, Magistrate, 1[Indian ]Consul or Vice-Consul, or representative 2 *** of the 3[Central Government], was so executed and authenticated. 1. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for "British". 2. The Words "of Her Majesty, or" Rep. by ibid. 3. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for "Government of India

Title: Presumption as to electronic agreements

Description: 1[85A. Presumption as to electronic agreements. -- The Court shall presume that every electronic record purporting to be an agreement containing the 2[electronic signature] of the parties was so concluded by affixing the 2[electronic signature] of the parties. 1. Ins by Act 21 of 2000, s. 92, and the Second Schedule (w.e.f. 17-10-2000). 2. Subs by Act 10 of 2009, s. 52(e), for "digital signature" (w.e.f. 27-10-2009).

Title: Presumption as to electronic records and electronic signatures

Description: 85B. Presumption as to electronic records and 5[electronic signatures]. --(1) In any proceedings involving a secure electronic record, the Court shall presume unless contrary is proved, that the secure electronic record has not been altered since the specific point of time to which the secure status relates. (2) In any proceedings, involving secure digital signature, the Court shall presume unless the contrary is proved that -- (a) the secure 1[electronic signature] is affixed by subscriber with the intention of signing or approving the electronic record; (b) except in the case of a secure electronic record or a secure 1[electronic signature], nothing in this section shall cerate any presumption, relating to authenticity and integrity of the electronic record or any 1[electronic signature]. 1. Subs by Act 10 of 2009, s. 52(e), for "digital signature" (w.e.f. 27-10-2009).

PART 2 ON PROOF PRESUMPTIONS AS TO DOCUMENTS