Section 52 in Indian Evidence Act 1872
Title: In civil cases character to prove conduct imputed irrelevant
In civil cases, the fact that the character of any person concerned is such as to render probable or improbable any conduct imputed to him, is irrelevant, except in so far as such character appears from facts otherwise relevant.
Title: In criminal cases previous good character relevant
In criminal proceedings, the fact that the person accused is of a good character, is relevant.
Title: Evidence of character or previous sexual experience not relevant in certain cases
1[53A. Evidence of character or previous sexual experience not relevant in certain cases. -- In a prosecution for an offence under section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, section 376, 2[section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB] or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or for attempt to commit any such offence, where the question of consent is in issue, evidence of the character of the victim or of such person's previous sexual experience with any person shall not be relevant on the issue of such consent or the quality of consent.]
1. Ins. by Act 13 of 2013, s. 25 (w.e.f. 3-2-2013)
2. Subs. by Act 22 of 2018, s. 8, for section 376A, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D (w.e.f 21-4-2018).
Title: Previous bad character not relevant except in reply
1[54. Previous bad character not relevant, except in reply. -- In criminal proceedings, the fact that the accused person has a bad character, is irrelevant, unless evidence has been given that he has a good character, in which case it becomes relevant.
Explanation 1. -- This section does not apply to cases in which the bad character of any person is itself a fact in issue.
Explanation 2. -- A previous conviction is relevant as evidence of bad character. ]
1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1891, s. 6 for "section 54".
Title: Character as affecting damages
In civil cases, the fact that the character of any person is such as to affect the amount of damages which he ought to receive, is relevant.
Explanation. -- In sections 52, 53, 54 and 55, the word character includes both reputation and disposition; but, 1[except as provided in section 54], evidence may be given only of general reputation and general disposition, and not of particular acts by which reputation or disposition were shown.
1. Ins. by s. 7, ibid.