Section 18 in Indian Penal Codes

Title: "India"

Description: India” means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir.]

Title: "Judge"

Description: The word “Judge” denotes not only every person who is officially designated as a Judge, but also every person,— who is empowered by law to give, in any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, a definitive judgment, or a judgment which, if not appealed against, would be definitive, or a judgment which, if confirmed by some other authority, would be definitive, or who is one of a body of persons, which body of persons is empow­ered by law to give such a judgment. Illustrations (a) A Collector exercising jurisdiction in a suit under Act 10 of 1859, is a Judge. (b) A Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in respect of a charge on which he has power to sentence to fine or imprisonment, with or without appeal, is a Judge. (c) A member of a panchayat which has power, under 21 Regulation VII, 1816, of the Madras Code, to try and determine suits, is a Judge. (d) A Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in respect of a charge on which he has power only to commit for trial to another Court, is not a Judge.

Title: "Court of Justice"

Description: The words “Court of Justice” denote a Judge who is empowered by law to act judicially alone, or a body of Judges which is empowered by law to act judicially as a body, when such Judge or body of Judges is acting judicially. Illustration A panchayat acting under 22 Regulation VII, 1816, of the Madras Code, having power to try and determine suits, is a Court of Justice.

Title: "Public Servent"

Description: he words “public servant” denote a person falling under any of the descriptions hereinafter following; namely:— 23 [***] (Second) —Every Commissioned Officer in the Military, 24 [Naval or Air] Forces 25 [ 26 [***] of India]; 27 [(Third) —Every Judge including any person empowered by law to discharge, whether by himself or as a member of any body of persons, any adjudicatory functions;] (Fourth) — Every officer of a Court of Justice 28 [(including a liquidator, receiver or commissioner)] whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate, or keep any document, or to take charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to interpret, or to preserve order in the Court, and every person specially authorized by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties; (Fifth) — Every juryman, assessor, or member of a panchayat assist­ing a Court of Justice or public servant; (Sixth) — Every arbitrator or other person to whom any cause or matter has been referred for decision or report by any Court of Justice, or by any other competent public authority; (Seventh) —Every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement; (Eighth) — Every officer of 29 [the Government] whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences, to give information of of­fences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or convenience; (Ninth) — Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property on behalf of 29 [the Govern­ment], or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of 29 [the Government], or to execute any revenue process, or to investigate, or to report, on any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of 29 [the Government], or to make, authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniary interests of 29 [the Govern­ment], or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protection of the pecuniary interests of 29 [the Government] 30 [***]; (Tenth) — Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property, to make any survey or assessment or to levy any rate or tax for any secular common purpose of any village, town or district, or to make, authenti­cate or keep any document for the ascertaining of the rights of the people of any village, town or district; 31 [(Eleventh) —Every person who holds any office in virtue of which he is empowered to prepare, publish, maintain or revise an elec­toral roll or to conduct an election or part of an election;] 32 [(Twelfth) —Every person— (a) in the service or pay of the Government or remunerated by fees or commission for the performance of any public duty by the Government; (b) in the service or pay of a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).] Illustration A Municipal Commissioner is a public servant. Explanation 1.—Persons falling under any of the above descrip­tions are public servants, whether appointed by the Government or not. Explanation 2.—Wherever the words “public servant” occur, they shall be understood of every person who is in actual possession of the situation of a public servant, whatever legal defect there may be in his right to hold that situation. 33 [Explanation 3.—The word “election” denotes an election for the purpose of selecting members of any legislative, municipal or other public authority, of whatever character, the method of selection to which is by, or under, any law prescribed as by election.] 34 [***] STATE AMENDMENT (Rajasthan) —In section 21, after clause twelfth, the following new clause shall be added, namely:— “Thirteenth.—Every person employed or engaged by any public body in the conduct and supervision of any examination recognised or approved under any law. Explanation.—The expression ‘Public Body’ includes— (a) a University, Board of Education or other body, either estab­lished by or under a Central or State Act or under the provisions of the Constitution of India or constituted by the Government; and (b) a local authority.” [Vide Rajasthan Act, 4 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 11-2-1993)].

Title: "Movable Property"

Description: The words “movable property” are intended to include corporeal property of every description, except land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth.

CHAPTER 2 GENERAL EXPLANATIONS