Section 84 in The Negotiable Instruments Act
Title: When cheque not duly presented and drawer damaged thereby
1[(1) Where a cheque is not presented for payment within a reasonable time of its issue, and the drawer or person on whose account it is drawn had the right, at the time when presentment ought to have been made, as between himself and the banker, to have the cheque paid and suffers actual damage through the delay, he is discharged to the extent of such damage, that is to say, to the extent to which such drawer or person is a creditor of the banker to a larger amount than he would have been if such cheque had been paid.
(2) In determining what is a reasonble time, regard shall be had to the nature of the instrument, the usage of trade and of bankers, and the facts of the particular case.
(3) The holder of the cheque as to which such drawer or person is so discharged shall be a creditor, in lieu of such drawer or person, of such banker to the extent of such discharge and entitled to recover the amount from him.
(a) A draws a cheque for Rs. 1,000, and, when the cheque ought to be presented, has funds at the bank to meet it. The bank fails before the cheque is presented. The drawer is discharged, but the holder can prove against the bank for the amount of the cheque.
(b) A draws a cheque at Umballa on a bank in Calcutta. The bank fails before the cheque could be presented in ordinary course. A is not discharged, for he has not suffered actual damage through any delay in presenting the cheque.]
1. Subs. by Act 6 of 1897, s. 3, for s. 84.
Title: Cheque payable to order
1[(1)] Where a cheque payable to order purports to be endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course.
2[(2) Where a cheque is originally expressed to be payable to bearer, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course to the bearer thereof, notwithstanding any endorsement whether in full or in blank appearing, thereon, and notwithstanding that any such endorsement purports to restrict or exclude further negotiation.]
1. S. 85 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 17 of 1934, s. 2.
2. Ins. by s. 2. ibid.
Title: Drafts drawn by one branch of a bank on another payable to order
1[Where any draft, that is, an order to pay money, drawn by one office of a bank upon another office of the same bank for a sum of money payable to order on demand, purports to be endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, the bank is discharged by payment in due course.]
1. Ins. by Act 25 of 1930, s. 2.
Title: Parties not consenting discharged by qualified or limited acceptance
If the holder of a bill of exchange acquiesces in a qualified acceptance, or one limited to part of the sum mentioned in the bill, or which substitutes a different place or time for payment, or which, where the drawees are not partners, is not signed by all the drawees, all previous parties whose consent is not obtained to such acceptance are discharged as against the holder and those claiming under him, unless on notice given by the holder they assent to such acceptance.
Explanation.-- An acceptance is qualified--
(a) where it is conditional, declaring the payment to be dependent on the happening of an event therein stated;
(b) where it undertakes the payment of part only of the sum ordered to be paid;
(c) where, no place of payment being specified on the order, it undertakes the payment at a specified place, and not otherwise or elsewhere; or where, a place of payment being specified in the order, it undertakes the payment at some other place and not otherwise or elsewhere;
(d) where it undertakes the payment at a time other than that at which under the order it would be legally due.
Title: Effect of material alteration
Any material alteration of a negotiable instrument renders the same void as against anyone who is a party thereto at the time of making such alteration and does not consent thereto, unless it was made in order to carry out the common intention of the original parties;
Alteration by indorsee.-- And any such alteration, if made by an indorsee, discharges his indorser from all liability to him in respect of the consideration thereof.
The provisions of this section are subject to those of sections 20, 49, 86 and 125