Section 82 in The Negotiable Instruments Act
Title: Discharge from liability
The maker, acceptor or indorser respectively of a negotiable instrument is discharged from liability thereon--
(a) by cancellation.-- to a holder thereof who cancels such acceptor's or indorser's name with intent to discharge him, and to all parties claiming under such holder;
(b) by release.-- to a holder thereof who otherwise discharges such maker, acceptor or indorser, and to all parties deriving title under such holder after notice of such discharge;
(c) by payment.-- to all parites thereto, if the instrument is payable to bearer, or has been indorsed in blank, and such maker, acceptor or indorser makes payment in due course of the amount due thereon.
Title: Discharge by allowing drawee more than fortyeight hours to accept
If the holder of a bill of exchange allows the drawee more than 1[forty-eight] hours, exclusive of public holidays, to consider whether he will accept the same, all previous parties not consenting to such allowance are thereby discharge from liability to such holder.
1. Subs. by Act 12 of 1921, s. 2, for twenty-four.
Title: When cheque not duly presented and drawer damaged thereby
1[(1) Where a cheque is not presented for payment within a reasonable time of its issue, and the drawer or person on whose account it is drawn had the right, at the time when presentment ought to have been made, as between himself and the banker, to have the cheque paid and suffers actual damage through the delay, he is discharged to the extent of such damage, that is to say, to the extent to which such drawer or person is a creditor of the banker to a larger amount than he would have been if such cheque had been paid.
(2) In determining what is a reasonble time, regard shall be had to the nature of the instrument, the usage of trade and of bankers, and the facts of the particular case.
(3) The holder of the cheque as to which such drawer or person is so discharged shall be a creditor, in lieu of such drawer or person, of such banker to the extent of such discharge and entitled to recover the amount from him.
(a) A draws a cheque for Rs. 1,000, and, when the cheque ought to be presented, has funds at the bank to meet it. The bank fails before the cheque is presented. The drawer is discharged, but the holder can prove against the bank for the amount of the cheque.
(b) A draws a cheque at Umballa on a bank in Calcutta. The bank fails before the cheque could be presented in ordinary course. A is not discharged, for he has not suffered actual damage through any delay in presenting the cheque.]
1. Subs. by Act 6 of 1897, s. 3, for s. 84.
Title: Cheque payable to order
1[(1)] Where a cheque payable to order purports to be endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course.
2[(2) Where a cheque is originally expressed to be payable to bearer, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course to the bearer thereof, notwithstanding any endorsement whether in full or in blank appearing, thereon, and notwithstanding that any such endorsement purports to restrict or exclude further negotiation.]
1. S. 85 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 17 of 1934, s. 2.
2. Ins. by s. 2. ibid.
Title: Drafts drawn by one branch of a bank on another payable to order
1[Where any draft, that is, an order to pay money, drawn by one office of a bank upon another office of the same bank for a sum of money payable to order on demand, purports to be endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, the bank is discharged by payment in due course.]
1. Ins. by Act 25 of 1930, s. 2.