Section 31 in The Negotiable Instruments Act 1881

Title: Liability of drawee of cheque

Description: The drawee of a cheque having sufficient funds of the drawer in his hands properly applicable to the payment of such cheque must pay the cheque when duly required so to do, and , in default of such payment, must compensate the drawer for any loss or damage caused by such default

Title: Liability of maker of note and acceptor of bill

Description: In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the maker of a promissory note and the acceptor before maturity of a bill of exchange are bound to pay the amount thereof at maturity according to the apparent tenor of the note or acceptance respectively, and the acceptor of a bill of exchange at or after maturity is bound to pay the amount thereof to the holder on demand. In default of such payment as aforesaid, such maker or acceptor is bound to compensate any party to the note or bill for any loss or damage sustained by him and caused by such default.

Title: Only drawee can be acceptor except in need or for honour

Description: No person except the drawee of a bill exchange, or all or some of several drawees, or a person named therein as a drawee in case of need, or an acceptor for honour, can bind himself by an acceptance

Title: Acceptance by several drawees not partners

Description: Where there are several drawees of a bill of exchange who are not partners, each of them can accept it for himself, but none of them can accept it for another without his authority.

Title:  Liability of indorser

Description: In the absence of a contract to the contrary, whoever indorses and delivers a negotiable instrument before maturity without, in such it indorsement, expressly excluding or making conditional his own liability, is bound thereby to every subsequent holder, in case of dishonour by the drawee, acceptor or maker, to compensate such holder for any loss or damage caused to him by such dishonour, provided due notice of dishonour has been given to, or received by, such indorser as hereinafter provided. Every indorser after dishonour is liable as upon an instrument payable on demand.

CHAPTER 3 PARTIES TO NOTES BILLS AND CHEQUES