Section 295 in The Code of Criminal Procedure
Title: Affidavit in proof of conduct of public servants
When any application is made to any Court in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, and allegations are made therein respecting any public servant, the applicant may give evidence of the facts alleged in the application by affidavit, and the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that evidence relating to such facts be so given.
Title: Evidence of formal character on affidavit
(1) The evidence of any person whose evidence is of a formal character may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.
(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit.
Title: Authorities before whom affidavits may be sworn
(1) Affidavits to be used before any Court under this Code may be sworn or affirmed before---
1[(a) any Judge or Judicial or Executive Magistrate, or]
(b) any Commissioner of Oaths appointed by a High Court or Court of Session, or
(c) any notary appointed under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952).
(2) Affidavits shall be confined to, and shall state separately, such facts as the deponent is able to prove from his own knowledge and such facts as he has reasonable ground to believe to be true, and in the latter case, the deponent shall clearly state the grounds of such belief.
(3) The Court may order any scandalous and irrelevant matter in the affidavit to be struck out or amended.
1. Subs. by Act 45 of 1978, s. 22, for cl. (a) (w.e.f. 18.12.1978).
Title: Previous conviction or acquittal how proved
In any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, a previous conviction or acquittal may be proved, in addition to any other mode provided by any law for the time being in force,---
(a) by an extract certified under the hand of the officer having the custody of the records of the Court in which such conviction or acquittal was held, to be a copy of the sentence or order, or
(b) in case of a conviction, either by a certificate signed by the officer in charge of the Jail in which the punishment or any part thereof was undergone, or by production of the warrant of commitment under which the punishment was suffered,
together with, in each of such cases, evidence as to the identity of the accused person with the person so convicted or acquitted.
Title: Record of evidence in absence of accused
(1) If it is proved that an accused person has absconded, and that there is no immediate prospect of arresting him, the Court competent to try 1 [, or commit for trial] such person for the offence complained of may, in his absence, examine the witnesses (if any) produced on behalf of the prosecution, and record their depositions and any such deposition may, on the arrest of such person, be given in evidence against him on the inquiry into, or trial for, the offence with which he is charged, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or cannot be found or his presence cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable.
(2) If it appears that an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life has been committed by some person or persons unknown, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct that any Magistrate of the first class shall hold an inquiry and examine any witnesses who can give evidence concerning the offence and any depositions so taken may be given in evidence against any person who is subsequently accused of the offence, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or beyond the limits of India.
1. Ins. by Act 45 of 1978, s. 23 (w.e.f. 18-12-1978).