Section 277 in The Code of Criminal Procedure

Title: Language of record of evidence

Description: In every case where evidence is taken down under section 275 or 276,--- (a) if the witness gives evidence in the language of the Court, it shall be taken down in that language; (b) if he gives evidence in any other language, it may, if practicable, be taken down in that language, and if it is not practicable to do so, a true translation of the evidence in the language of the Court shall be prepared as the examination of the witness proceeds, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record; (c) where under clause (b) evidence is taken down in a language other than the language of the Court, a true translation thereof in the language of the Court shall be prepared as soon as practicable, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record: Provided that when under clause (b) evidence is taken down in English and a translation thereof in the language of the Court is not required by any of the parties, the Court may dispense with such translation.

Title: Procedure in regard to such evidence when completed

Description: (1) As the evidence of each witness taken under section 275 or section 276 is completed, it shall be read over to him in the presence of the accused, if in attendance, or of his pleader, if he appears by pleader, and shall, if necessary, be corrected. (2) If the witness denies the correctness of any part of the evidence when the same is read over to him, the Magistrate or presiding Judge may, instead of correcting the evidence, make a memorandum thereon of the objection made to it by the witness and shall add such remarks as he thinks necessary. (3) If the record of the evidence is in a language different from that in which it has been given and the witness does not understand that language, the record shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it was given, or in a language which he understands. STATE AMENDMENTS Gujarat. In the principal Act, in section 278, after sub-section (3), the following sub-sections shall be added, namely:-- “(4) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) to (3) shall apply when the evidence under section 273 is taken through the medium of Electronic Video Linkage. (5) The evidence taken through the medium of Electronic Video Linkage in electronic from shall be the electronic record within the meaning of clause (t) of section 2 if the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000)” [Vide Gujarat Act 31 of 2017, sec. 3.]

Title: Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader

Description: (1) Whenever any evidence is given in a language not understood by the accused, and he is present in Court in person, it shall be interpreted to him in open Court in a language understood by him. (2) If he appears by pleader and the evidence is given in a language other than the language of the Court, and not understood by the pleader, it shall be interpreted to such pleader in that language. (3) When documents are put for the purpose of formal proof, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to interpret as much thereof as appears necessary

Title: Remarks respecting demeanour of witness

Description: When a presiding Judge or Magistrate has recorded the evidence of a witness, he shall also record such remarks (if any) as he thinks material respecting the demeanour of such witness whilst under examination

Title: Record of examination of accused

Description: (1) Whenever the accused is examined by a Metropolitan Magistrate, the Magistrate shall make a memorandum of the substance of the examination of the accused in the language of the Court and such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record. (2) Whenever the accused is examined by any Magistrate other than a Metropolitan Magistrate, or by a Court of Session, the whole of such examination, including every question put to him and every answer given by him, shall be recorded in full by the presiding Judge or Magistrate himself or where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf. (3) The record shall, if practicable, be in the language in which the accused is examined or, if that is not practicable, in the language of the Court. (4) The record shall be shown or read to the accused, or, if he does not understand the language in which it is written, shall be interpreted to him in a language which he understands, and he shall be at liberty to explain or add to his answers. (5) It shall thereafter be signed by the accused and by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, who shall certify under his own hand that the examination was taken in his presence and hearing and that the record contains a full and true account of the statement made by the accused. (6) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to the examination of an accused person in the course of a summary trial. STATE AMENDMENTS Gujarat In the principal Act, in section 281, in sub-section (6), after the words “the examination of an accused person", the words "either through the medium of Electronic Video Linkage or" shall be inserted. [Vide Gujarat Act 31 of 2017, sec. 4.]